Types of Bricks.
Sand Lime Brick
Fly Ash Bricks
Classified in 3 groups : normal brick, face brick, and engineering brick.
Normal brick – These are ordinary bricks which are not designed to provide good finished appearance or high strength. They are therefore in general and cheapest bricks available.
Face brick - These are designed to give attractive appearance, hence they are free from imperfection such as cracks. It’s produces in variety of color. It’s no need plaster when used as wall.
Engineering Brick – These are design base on engineering characteristic. It’s designed primarily for strength and durability. They are high density and well fired. Normally, it’s will be used as retaining wall, load bearing wall and sewerage.
Brick Masonry terms
Bonding - the method of laying masonry units in a wall in a regular pattern for strength & generally in such a way that there are no continuous vertical joints in successive courses.
There are three types of brick bondings viz;
Brick Manufacturing Processes
1. Raw Material Preparation
2. The Making Process
Clay will be grinded with 15% of water.
The clay will be pushed through the mould based on the shape.
After that, clay will cut to get a standard size of brick using wire.
Sometimes, bricks will produced using big mould that clay will be press that using hydraulic machine (this method, clay will grind 10% of water) or without hydraulic press (with 30% of water)
3. Setting and Drying
After bricks in form, indentation or perforation to the bricks.
Wet unit bricks will be drying in space or room with control temperature to make sure the bricks in complete dry.
Dry bricks, was compile in kiln to firing process with 600oC (temperature).
The main stage of firing are:
Maintaining control of the temperature is most important
Stronger brick such as Engineering Brick, are normally fired at higher temperature.
Advantages of Brick
Indian Standards (IS CODE) for bricks
Objective To control quality of the brick
Brick WorkBrick shape in brick work
To produce the variety of arrangement or special purpose in brick work
Six Brick Test
Compressive Strength Test
Fairly obviously, this is the ability of the masonry unit (brick or block) to resist crushing loads, eg the weight of the roof that the wall is supporting, plus the weight of the wall itself. The designer of the structure needs to be sure that the masonry unit will be able to carry the load being placed upon it, including any live loads.
The bricks, when tested in accordance with the procedure laid down in IS 3495 (Part 1) : 1992 shall have a minimum average compressive strength for various classes as given in TABLE 4.1 of IS 1077 : 1992
Water Absorption Test
A standard soaking-in-water test can determine the porosity of bricks, which can then be used as an indication of the potential for the development of problems related to the penetration of salts and other materials into the units, such as salt attack and efflorescence.
The bricks, when tested in accordance with the procedure laid down in IS 3495 (Part 2) : 1992 after immersion in cold water for 24 hours, water absorption shall not be more than 20 % by weight up to class 12.5 and 15 % by weight for higher classes.
Efflorescence is a deposit of salts, usually white, on the surface of bricks and blocks after being laid. The salts usually come from ground water or out of the mortar, but may come from within the masonry units themselves.
This test predicts the likelihood that the units will display such unsightly deposits from salts that they already contain.
The bricks when tested in accordance with the procedure laid down in IS 3495 (Part 3 ) : 1992 Standard Mark. the rating of efflorescence shall not be more than ‘moderate up to class 12.5 and ‘slight’ for higher classes
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