Circulation Elements

Circulation Elements

The Building Approach
The distance view

The Building Entrance
From outside to inside

Confuguration Of Path
The sequence of space

Path & Space Relationship
Edges , nodes and termination of path

Form Of The Circulation Space
Corridor , Balconies , Galleries , Stairs , Rooms

The Building Approach

Frontal : A frontal approach leads directly to building entrance along a straight axial path. The visual goal that terminates the approach is clear ; it can be entire front facade of a building or an elaborated entrance within it.
Oblique : Enhance the effect of perspective on a building front façade and form. Path can be redirected one or more times to delay and prolong the sequence of approach.
Spiral : A Spiral path prolongs the sequence of the approach and emphasizes the three dimensional form of building and it moves around the buildings parameter. The buildings entrance might be viewed intermittently during the approach to clarify its position or it can be hidden until the point of arrival.

The Building Approach

Aerial View : THE ACROPOLIS, Athens, Greece

The Building Approach

FALLING WATER, Conneisville , Pennsylvania , 1939 , F. L. Wright

The Building Approach

Saynatsalo Town Hall · Saynatsalo, Finland , 1949-52 , Alvar Alto

Building Entrances

Entering a building involves the act of penetrating a vertical plane that distinguishes one space from another and separates “here” from “there.”
An entrance is signified by establishing a real or implied plane perpendicular to the path of approach.
Entrances can be flush, projected and recessed.
Flush entrances maintain the continuity of a walls surface and can be deliberately obscured.
Projected entrances announce their function to the approach and provide shelter overhead.
Recessed entrances also provide shelter and receive a portion of exterior space into the realm of the building.

Building Entrances

An entrance can be centered within the frontal plane of the building or it can be placed off center and create its own symmetrical condition about its opening.

The notion of an entrance can be visually reinforced by
making the opening lower, wider, or narrower, than anticipated.
Making the entrance extra deep or circuitous.
articulating the opening with ornamentation or decorative embellishment.

Building Entrances

Legislative Assembly Building , Chandigarh , 1961-64 , Le Corbusier

Building Entrances

Piazza san marco venice , italy, View framed by doges palace on the left and scamozzi’s library on the right .

Building Entrances

Gate to Toshogu Shrine , Tochgi prefecture , Japan

Yomeimon Gate, Toshogu Shrine, Tochgi prefecture , Japan

Building Entrances

Von Sternberg house , Los angeles, california 1936, Richard Neutra.

Building Entrances

John F. Kennedy Memorial Plaza in Dallas, Texas, 1970 , Philip Johnson

Building Entrances

Pazzi chapel by Filippo Brunelleschi 1429-46 , Florence , Italy

Building Entrances

Millowner association building, Ahmedabad , 1954 . Le corbusier

Configuration Of The Path

Linear : All paths are linear , A Straight path , however can be primary organizing element for a series of spaces.

Radial : Path extending from , or terminating at central common point.

Spiral : Is a single continuous path that originates from a central point revolves around it.

Grid : Consist of two set of parallel paths that intersect at regular intervals.

Network : Consist of random path that connect established point in space.

Composite : Employs combination of the preceding forms.

Linear Path

Weinstein House, Old Westbury - Nassau County, Long Island, NY, USA 1969-71 by: Richard Meier

Grid Path

Jaipur city , Rajasthan , india 1728

Network Path


Path Space Relationship

Pass By Spaces :

  • The integrity of each space is maintained
  • The configuration of path is flexible
  • Mediating space can be used to link the path with spaces

Pass Through Spaces :
The path may pass through a space axially, obliquely or along its edge.

Terminate In Space :
The location of space establishes the path.

This path –space relationship is used to approach and enter functionally or symbolically important spaces.

Linear Path : Pass through Spaces

Carpenter Center for Visual Art, Harvard University USA 1961-68 by: Le corbusier.

Linear Path : Pass by Spaces

Scarborough college, Westhill, Ontario : 1964 by John Andrews

Form Of Circualtion Space

Forming a corridor that related to the spaces it links through entrance in wall planes.

Open On One Side
To provide visual and spatial continuity with space it links.

Open On Both Side
To become a physical extension of space it passes through.