Le Corbusier

Le Corbusier (Charles-Édouard Jeanneret)

1887-1965 ,Swiss architect ,Urban planner ,Painter,Writer,Designer,Theorist ,Active mostly in France.

“For the first time perhaps, the pressing problems of architecture, were solved in a modern spirit. Economy, sociology, aesthetics: a new solution using new methods.”

“Through the channel of my painting I arrived at my architecture.”

- Le Corbusier.

Le Corbusier’s 5 Points of a New Architecture

the pilotis elevating the mass off the ground,
the free plan, achieved through the separation of the load-bearing columns from the walls subdividing the space,

the free facade, the corollary of the free plan in the vertical plane,
the long horizontal sliding window and finally

the roof garden, restoring, supposedly, the area of ground covered by the house.

Four Studies of the potentials of the 'Five Points', 1929. (a) Maison La Roche-Jeanneret, (b) Villa Stein, (c) Villa at Carthage, (d) Villa Savoye

Maison La Roche-Jeanneret,8-10 Square du Docteur-Blanche, Auteuil, Paris, France , 1923 ,

This double house designed in 1923 for Raoul La Roche and Albert Jeanneret, marks a milestone in the architectural reflection of Le Corbusier, The "five points" for composing the facade and ribbon windows are present, as well as the two-story spaces and balconies characteristic of the architect.

Maison La Roche-Jeanneret

The house marks a radical departure in that it was more picturesque and spatially elaborate than its predecessors.

The program included a salon, dining room, bedrooms, a study, a kitchen, a maid's room and a garage. The site faced north, and zoning restrictions prevented windows looking over the surrounding back gardens. It was therefore necessary to get light in by creating light courts, a terrace, and skylights.

Villa Stein, Garches, Paris, France , 1926-1928

Villa Stein

The architect, in the "Four Compositions," says that his conception of volume in his designs comes from his solid modeling. Stein's house, according to this thinking, is part of the second type that says, "The second shows an understanding of the organisms inside the rigid packaging, absolutely pure. The difficult problem, perhaps to the delight of the mind, is the cost to spiritual energy tied in the middle of the restrictions imposed."

Villa Baizeau, at Carthage , Tunisia , 1928-1930

The house that was built at last was no longer a “plan libre” free plan house, but more a “do­mino” type.

Villa Savoye, Poissy, France , 1929-1931

The villa savoye was also a realization of the 'five points'. As well as demonstrating these, it also has the characteristic elements such as the entrance ramp (which cuts through the middle of the grid), the curving walls of the solarium and, the pilotis and slab construction. Once inside the ground floor, one can promenade through either by a ramp or a curving staircase.

Villa Savoye

The first floor, surrounded entirely by a ribbon window, consisted of the complete lining accommodation wrapped in the open terrace. Light and air penetrated everywhere. Direct contact with the surrounding landscape is achieved by various openings, views are framed like a picture.

United Habitation, Marseilles, France

The building is based on le modular "System of Proportion" designed by Le Corbusier.

After World War II, the need for housing was at an unprecedented high. In 1947, Europe was still feeling the effects of the Second World War, when Le Corbusier was commissioned to design a multi-family residential housing project for the people of Marseille that were dislocated after the bombings on France. Completed in 1952, the Unite d’ Habitation was the first of a new housing project series for Le Corbusier that focused on communal living for all the inhabitants to shop, play, live, and come together in a “vertical garden city.”

The Monastry of Sainte Marie de La Tourette Lyon, France.

This is a Dominican Order priory. The structural frame is of rough reinforced concrete. The panes of glass located on the three exterior faces achieved the system called "the undulatory glass surface". In the garden-court of the cloister, the fenestration is composed of large concrete elements reaching from floor to ceiling, perforated with glazed voids and separated from one another by "ventilators": vertical slits covered by metal mosquito netting and furnished with a pivoting shutter. The corridors leading to the dwelling cells are lit by a horizontal opening located under the ceiling.

The Monastry of Sainte Marie de La Tourette Lyon, France

The buildings contain a hundred sleeping rooms for teachers and students, study halls, a hall for work and one for recreation, a library and a refectory.
Next comes the church where the monks carry on alone (on occasion in the presence of several of the faithful).
Finally, the circulation connects all the parts in particular those which appear in a new form (the achievement of the traditional cloister form is rendered impossible here by the slope of terrain).

The Monastry of Sainte Marie de La Tourette Lyon, France

On two levels, the loggias crowning the building (one for each acoustically-isolated monk's cell) form brises-soleil.
The study halls, work and recreation halls, as well as the library occupy the upper-level.
Below are the refectory and the cloister in the form of a cross leading to the church.
And then come the piles carrying the four convent buildings rising from the slope of the terrain left in its original condition, without terracing.

The chapel of Notre Dame du Haut , Ronchamp, 1954

It departs from his principles of standardization and the machine aesthetic, giving in instead to a site-specific response.

The Capitol complex, Chandigarh

The Capitol : Le Corbusier liked to compare the city he planned to a biological entity: the head was the Capitol, the City Center was the heart and work areas of the institutional area and the university were limbs.
Asymmetrically arranged in a huge square, the buildings of the Capitoline together represent the powers of the democratic state and are comprised of: Courts (Judiciary)
Secretariat (Executive)
Legislative Assembly (legislature)
Governor's Palace (not implemented)
Trench contemplation

Legislative Assembly Building , Capitol complex, Chandigarh.

The building has two entrances: one at the basement level for everyday use an the other from the piazza level for ceremonial occasions through a massive entrance, 7.60 meters high and 7.60 meters broad, whose enameled door translates a cubist mural painted by Le Corbusier himself.

Secretariat, Capitol complex, Chandigarh

Located at the other end of the Capitol, separating the Palace of Justice and at the western end of the government, called the Secretariat is a long bar of 245 m long and 42 high, which contains 8-level administrative offices of two provinces Punjab and Haryana.

Inside the dining room at the secretariat distinguish the separation of the structure with windows, this being one of the favorites of Le Corbusier

High Court , Capitol complex, Chandigarh

The High Court is a linear block with the main facade towards the piazza.   It has a rhythmic  arcade created by a parasol-like roof, which shades the entire building.

Keeping in view the special dignity of the entrance for them through a high portico resting on three giant pylons painted in bright colors. Very much in the tradition of the Buland Darwaza of Fatehpur-Sikri, this grand entrance with its awesome scale is intended to manifest the Majesty of the Law to all who enter.