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To create a functional and beautiful living environment using design basics,   design elements and design principles.

Interior Design Elements

Elements of Design

  • Space
  • Point
  • Line
  • Shape (2D)
  • Form (3D)
  • Colour
  • Texture
  • Space

    design spacedesign space

  • The area a designer is given to work with,
  • The area between objects in a room,
  • The basic space problems people encounter include having too much or, more often, not having enough.
  • Space is probably the most important element of design. It gives us the ability to change.
  • Space changes as we move, as light changes, or psychologically by where we are located.
  • To make an area feel more spacious:

  • allow large openings between rooms
  • place furniture near walls
  • use small furniture, patterns and textures
  • use a minimum of furnishings and accessories
  • allow for empty spaces between furniture and on walls
  • design space
    The key is to keep the eye moving in an uninterrupted way, causing our brain to think the room is larger.
  • allow as much floor to show as possible
  • use mirrors to create the illusion of space
  • unify spaces by using the same floor/wall coverings
  • use light, cool colors
  • place lighting on the outside of the room or underneath furniture
  • Good space planning helps people feel more comfortable in their environments.
  • design space
  • place furniture perpendicular to the walls
  • use furniture of differing heights
  • group furniture according to areas of activity
  • use large furniture that sits directly on the floor
  • use large, contrasting patterns, colors and textures
  • use warm, dark colors
  • use natural lighting
  • use soft, rough textures to absorb sound
  • Positive vs. Negative Space

  • It is important in our designs to include both positive and negative space to achieve a look of overall balance.
  • Positive is filled space while negative is empty space.
  • Too much positive space can cause the space to feel cluttered.
  • Too much negative space can cause the space to feel empty.
  • Point

    design point

    A point is simply a location in space having neither dimensions nor substance.


    When a point moves through space or when two points are connected, line is generated. Line also describes a shape or outline. It can create texture and can be thick and thin. 

  • Vertical lines
  • Horizontal lines
  • Diagonal lines(Oblique or sloping)
  • Curved lines
  • Actual lines
  • Contour lines
  • Implied lines
  • Vertical Lines

    design line
  • These suggest stability and immobility and by extension dignity and permanence.
  • Vertical columns of a building suggests its solidity and permanence.
  • Strong vertical lines -- in a picture, in a frame, or in the arrangement on the wall add to the feeling of height in a room.

  • Horizontal Lines

    design line
  • These suggest rest and repose.
  • Floors and ceilings are the surfaces that give spaces their sense of reassuring normality

  • Diagonal (Oblique or sloping) Lines

    diagonal line
  • These suggest movement, dynamic forces and activity.
  • A sloping ceiling or staircase makes a space seem active, lively

  • Curved Lines

    curved line
  • The path of moving point that continually changes its direction gives a curved line.
  • Curving lines suggest softness and freedom and feminine appeal

  • Contour Line

    Varying the thickness or thinness of a line can add interest and give a sense of 3-Dimensionality. Here, the thick lines of this drawing represent the shadows or darker areas of the seal.

    contour line contour line

    2D Forms (Shapes)

  • Planes are 2 dimensional with length and width.
  • They lie completely in one plane
  • Shapes are flat and can be grouped into two categories, geometric and organic (free form).
  • 2D forms 2D forms
  • Geometric shapes can be defined by a mathematical formula. ( L x W = Area ).
  • Organic or freeform shapes have no particular formula to how they are created.
  • 3D Forms

  • Adding depth or volume to a 2D form creates a 3D form.
  • Furniture, columns or stairs and buildings are 3D solids.
  • 3D forms 3D forms


    It is about surface quality either tactile (they way it feels) or visual (the way it looks). Texture can be real or implied by different uses of media. It is the degree of roughness or smoothness in objects..


    Interior Design Basics    |     Interior Design Principles    |     Colour