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Concrete Work
#1
Concrete Work

For RCC work, the ingredients of concrete should be in the ratio of 1:1.5:3 (cement one part, sand 1.5 parts and coarse aggregates 3 parts). All of these items are measured by volume and are best measured using a container of wood or steel. Traditionally, the size of this container would be 350x250x400 mm, which holds 35 litres. While preparing the mixture, 25 litres of water must be added per bag of cement. If the mix is prepared in a machine, it should be mixed for at least 2 minutes so that the mixture blends well with the water. If you are mixing by hand, then it is advisable to prepare a dry mix of cement and sand in a tray. After blending, when the colour appears uniform, the coarse aggregate may be added and then finally add the water.

The concrete mix should be cast before it begins to set. Normally, concreting should be completed within 30 minutes to an hour. In case of any delay, do not add any more water just to improve its flowing consistency. The casting of concrete should be done continuously, i.e., layer over layer. The mixture should be poured from a maximum height of 1.5 metres. This avoids the ingredients separating. The mixture must then be properly compacted. It is best to complete this task with a needle vibrator. If this is unavailable, an iron rod could be substituted. This is done to ensure that there are no air bubbles in the concrete, as this would weaken it.
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#2
Steps of Concrete Construction

The construction steps are:

  1. Selecting quantities of materials for selected mix proportion 
    in  M20 concrete grade mix ratio is 1 : 1.5 : 3 here 1 is the ratio of cement, 1.5 is the ratio of sand and 3 is the ratio of coarse aggregate based on volume or weight of materials and this grade have commpresive strength of 20 MPa 
  2. Mixing
    Hand Mixing : • Small jobs • Inferior mixing • Low quality concreteMachine Mixing • Good mixing • Large works Concrete mixers • Tilting mixers • Non-tilting mixers • Reversing drum mixers • Pan type or stirring mixers • Transit mixer
  3. Checking of workability
  4. Transportation 
    • Mortar pan • Wheel barrow • Chutes • Dumper • Bucket and Ropeway • Belt conveyor • Skip and Hoist • Pumping
  5. Pouring in formwork for casting 
     Preserve concrete quality  Water-cement ratio  Slump  Air-content  Homogeneity Avoid separation of aggregate and mortar Avoid excessive horizontal movement Consolidate adequately Maintain sufficient placement capacity Choose the right equipment for the concrete
  6. Vibrating for proper compaction
     External Vibration  Form vibrators  Vibrating tables  Surface vibrators  Vibratory screeds  Plate vibrators Vibratory roller screeds  Vibratory hand floats or trowels
  7. Removal of formwork after suitable time
  8. Curing member with suitable methods and required time.
Water cement ratio plays an important role which influences various properties such as workability, strength and durability. Adequate water cement ratio is required for production of  workable concrete.
Manish Jain Architect
Email: manish@frontdesk.co.in
Tel: +91 141 2743536 

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#3
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