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Role of NGO in planning development of any city
#1
Local, national and regional NGOs have emerged as major players and partners in development activities in the region. At the community level, they are in the front line in providing assistance in the acquisition of basic needs and amenities; in identifying issues, raising awareness, and providing information to grassroots communities; in articulating the communities’ problems and needs and bringing these to the attention of those who can affect change; in defending both the environmental and developmental rights of communities and building the capacity of communities to manage their natural resources; and in dealing with sustainable development concerns.

1.       Awareness-Raising, Campaigning and Advocacy
2.       Environmental Monitoring and Reporting
3.       Education, Training and Capacity Building
4.       Local Government and NGO Partnerships
5.       Contribution Toward Making Cities Child-friendly
6.       Catalyzing and/or facilitating the active participation of communities in development
7.       Complementary or neutral to the objectives of the local authority.
8.       Ensure reliability and sustainability of their initiatives, since they are self motivated.
9.       Implementation, operations and maintenance of the facilities required for development.

1 Awareness-Raising, Campaigning and Advocacy
Across the region a large array of groups work to raise awareness of environmental issues and push for changes in policy and development programmes. These groups carry out environmental awareness raising and campaigning locally, nationally, and internationally, with some campaigns operating simultaneously at all levels. In India, for example, the Kerala Sastra Sahitya Parishad (KSSP) has earned international recognition for its work in mobilizing public opinion among people’s organizations in the State of Kerala .
NGOs that seek to change laws and government practices are more likely to be successful when they join forces. Effective advocacy requires large numbers. The more people you have on your side, the louder your voice is, and the stronger the pressure you are able to bring to bear. If a coalition already exists, join it. If none exists, think about starting one. That will make your NGO a leader among its peers. Such a step will take time and commitment. You may have to recruit staff and board members who can invest the time and energy to do it well.
2 Environmental Monitoring and Reporting
Many NGO campaigns are based on research that highlights or monitors specific environmental issues. At the local or community level, NGOs are in a good position to keep track of critical issues on a continuing basis and, in many cases; NGOs complement the work of government institutions and cooperate with law enforcement authorities.
Environmental NGOs typically take up causes related to the environment such Climate Change, Air Pollution, Deforestation, Ozone Layer Depletion, Waste Management, Biodiversity and Land Use, Energy, Conservation, Environmental degradation, Land Degradation Some of the Prominent examples of Environmental NGO working in India are
1.                   Greenpeace India,
2.                   Awaaz Foundation,
3.                   Centre for Science and Environment,
4.                   Goa Foundation,
5.                   CERE India,
6.                   Conserve,
7.                   Foundation For Ecological Security,
8.                   Exnora International,
9.                   Goa Foundation,
10.               WWF India
11.               Winrock International India.

3 Education, Training and Capacity Building
NGOs have worked extensively with governments to help develop and implement national environmental education strategies

4 Local Government and NGO Partnerships
Partnerships take different forms, ranging from informal and casual to formal and structured. You can have relationships where you talk to each other regularly to share information, ideas and experiences. You can also have highly organized, collaborative relationships where you design projects, raise money and run the projects together.
Governments need NGOs to accomplish their missions as well as vice versa. Because they often have very deep relationships in the communities they serve, NGOs can reach people governments can’t. With the ability to operate with high levels of flexibility and creativity, NGOs can fill gaps where governments have difficulty reaching.

5 Contribution Toward Making Cities Child-friendly
Rapid urban growth in many cities in India  poses significant risks to the well-being of children. Research commissioned by UNICEF has noted that the health and often the lives of more than half of the world’s children are constantly threatened by environmental hazards, in their home and surroundings and in the places where they play and socialize. The research also indicates that 40 000 child deaths occur each year from malnutrition and disease, and that 150 million children a year survive with ill health, with retarded physical and mental development. More and more young people are being admitted to hospital with asthma due to car fumes, while other pollutants are linked with a whole range of other health problems in the young. Shanty town dwellings with inadequate basic facilities exposes children to diseases and dangers, while traffic claims many young lives on a daily basis. Because of such problems, one of the greatest challenge for urban administrations in the new millennium is in the area of child development and protection.
During the past two decades, relevance of the role of voluntary sector has been in focus in India. In fact, the initiatives taken by the United Nations and its agencies in involving the voluntary sector for capacity building and contributing towards the speedier and less expensive processes of development has gained worldwide acceptance. As a consequence, the developed countries in particular and those which are still developing or are less developed have taken the idea of involving the voluntary sector responding to the complex processes of development at various levels. India has a large network of voluntary organizations working in the fields of Health, Education, Urban spheres.
 
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#2
Capacity development of NGO is attracting more and more attention in the context of a changing aid architecture. Having previously been the recipient of capacity development efforts, NGOs now have the possibility to have an impact themselves on the capacity development of state institutions. “The current donor approach (through the Paris Declaration) emphasizes the need to strengthen the state and institutions, following two decades of downsizing of the public sector through policies and neo-liberalism. During this period, capacity building concentrated on NGOs " 


hypotheses 1: NGOs are becoming more involved in capacity development for a variety of reasons. These reasons have been elaborated above and are related to the consolidation of NGOs’ role in development aid work and the multilateral aid agenda’s promotion of capacity development.

hypotheses 2:  This involvement changes the way in which NGOs operate. Given that NGOs already play an important role in gap filling in education provision, traditional ‘project’ mode and non-formal education, we do not expect NGOs to abandon these essential activities in favour of capacity development. We do, however, expect NGOs to have taken on capacity-development activities directed towards the public education sector and governmental education planning and management. These constitute complementary activities to service delivery and as a result, diversify NGO action. This diversification can be interpreted as a strategy for ‘scaling up’ and corresponds to NGOs’ aspiration to increase their influence in education governance.


hypotheses 3: Through their involvement, they have an impact on the interpretation (in the fi eld) of capacity development. By taking part in capacity development efforts, NGOs contribute to shaping the content of capacity development. By integrating capacity development into their overall strategies of intervention in a coherent manner, that is in a way that corresponds to the ‘typicalities’ of NGO action in the education sector, NGOs attempt to redefine capacity development in their own image. As a result, NGOs’ efforts in this area will reflect traditional NGO action and values, such as a continued focus on the communities and local civil societies. 

hypotheses 4: Through this new interpretation, capacity development can weaken central government, but also strengthen it in the long term. NGOs’ new activities, diversifying their action and impact in the education sector, reflect the strengthening of NGO capacities and influence on education governance. The increased involvement of NGOs in capacity development can prove to be to the detriment and to the benefit of government. The intricate question is precisely how NGO support to capacity development can contribute to strengthening government, without threatening the originality of NGO intervention. H5: Impact and obstacles. Given their place in the education sector, one would expect NGOs to have a substantial impact on government capacity and strategies, but also that they tend to encounter some of the same types of obstacles as other actors involved in capacity development. While previous research suggests that it is the concept and process of capacity development that complicates the task, and not necessarily the type of actor involved (it is not a question of agency), some actor-specific obstacles can be expected. If the third hypothesis presented finds support (that NGOs shape capacity development in their own image), one would expect to meet some obstacles that, to a larger or a lesser degree, depend on the capacity-developing actor in question, and therefore, are NGO-specific. 
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